Reiches "Abblasen" Performed by Richard Carson Steuart on the prototyp LA TROMBA "Clarino" : "Baroque D" (A = 415 Hz). Recorded in Germany, August 2017.
In August of 2017, Richard Carson Steuart completed the development of the new "La Tromba" Clarino trumpet, a "replica" of the special Clarino instrument that Johann Sebastian Bach's famous "Solo Trumpeter", Johann Gottfried Reiche originally performed on.
Mr. Steuart has named this endevor his "Clarino- Project zu Leipzig" since it honors the 350th year of Reiche's birth!
Just as Johann Gottfried Reiche's original instrument, shown in the Haussmann's original painting below, Steuart's La Tromba model, has no valves, no keys, no slides, and certainly no "hinden" anmd completely unauthentic intonation-holes of any kind!
This is truly the "real deal" my friends, just as Reiche played it over 300 years ago!
Greatly inspired by both the mystery behind the famous Elias Gottlob Haussmann portrait of Reiche and by Bach's works, written specifically for Reiche, to be specifically played on his special "Clarino" Trumpet, Mr. decided to have the instrument built anew. Since there are no existing "historical" versions of this original instrument from which to make a copy nor any existing construction plans (other than Elias Gottlob Haussmann"s portrait itself!) Steuart decided to take the initiative, having his Chief Accustical Engineer, Mr. Heinz Poggensee of Würzburg Germany, construct it as close as possible to the instrument shown in the painting itself!
With his initiative he hopes as well to especially inspire both Professionals and young musicians like, to once again learn to play this intrument again and thereafter finally perform Bach's works "authenically" on the original Clarino Trumpet!
Yes, as Bach's works were performed almost 300 Years ago!
Mr. Steuart reports he has of course examined and personally tested several instruments from makers who too have quite seriously attempted to construct such a Clarino instrument in the past. Two of the best of these, he says, were both made in Leipzig and are infact on display in the Grazzi Museum and in the Old City Hall Museum of Leipzig even today. They are from the excellent workshops of Syhre in Leipzig and Volgt in Markt Neukirchen.
Although Syhre of Leipzig and Adolf and Rainer Egger of Basel, Switzerland not to forget mention Markus Rachet of Bamberg (who too built an excellent copy of a much later dated intrument, originally from Balthasar Fürst of Ellwangen - 1770, on display in the German National Museum in Nuerberg) succeeded in building quite playable instruments of this kind, it is in truth virtually impossible to reconstruct such a instrument without direct interaction and cooperation with a truly experienced, virtuoso performers. One, who first and foremost clearly understands the instruments original playing technique.
Since no modern Artist at his level has made the concerted effort to first build and then actually learn to play this special original instrument before, it was necessary for Mr. Steuart to start from the very beginning in his research.
Past artist/historians like Walter Holy of Köln, Germany and most importantly, Donald L. Smithers of New York City, U.S.A., should be clearly mentioned here aswell, to show do respect for their individual, ground- breaking contributions regarding their clear understanding of the original Clarino intrument and it's playing potential. They too are to be noted as important initial sources of both historical as well as practical performance information. Both are/were in any case true inspirations for Steuart's Clarino Project zu Leipzig even though neither artist had in their time understood nor ever used "hand reflextion" in coordination with tounge and mouth compression techniques in their performances on similar Coiled Trumpets.
Steuart says, "it is not only difficult and strenuous to play the natural trumpet musically with or without the non-authentic "well tempered" intonation holes commonly used today, it also requires all the intelligence, experience and sensitivity that a seasoned and serious High Brass playing musician can muster. Therefore most professional trumpeters find it too tedious to spend the necessary time to first understand and then appreciate the Clarino or Tromba da caccia (Hunting Trumpet) the true Bach Trumpet, let alone try to master it and then to perform in public on it.
It therefore should be clearly understood that only through the combination of several physical and specific technical prerequisites, as well as years of patient practice, can this instrument be truly mastered!"
He adds, " the Clarino trumpet is an extremely "dangerous" intrument to perform on at the best of times, because like any natural instrument it is difficult to "control" in the high register, (especially without any intonation holes nor slides nor keys of any kind, just as the intrument was originally played ) and both excellent ear training and an advanced emboucher and breathing development are absolutely necessary to perform consistently on this extremely sensitive instrument.
Added to this and most importantly, a deep understanding and application of the both tounge positioning techniques and my newly rediscovered hand reflextion technique, cannot be circumvented if one wishes to master this fine instrument and to authenically play Bach's demanding works on it! "This" he says "is the ultimate challenge when playing the "Clarino" Trumpet!"
There are neither hand-written technical descriptions, printed method books, nor any historical performance explanations as to how this instrument was originally played. Never the less, after working on this project for three years, Steuart believes he has, through his own disaplined and methodical study, (re)discovered the true historical playing technique of the instrument and is now willing and able to share this special knowledge with "the trumpet world"!
His first Clarino Lecture-Concert took place in the "Historical City Hall" in Leipzig, Germany on the 18th of November 2017, the exact location where Johann Gottfried Reiche served his regular musical duties right up to the day of his sudden death in 1734.
According to Steuart's research, the Haussmann painting was very possibly comissioned by the City Elders of Leipzig specifically to honor Johann Gottfired Reiche's 60th birthday!
Having been placed in a number of other locations over the past almost 3 centuries, this painting hangs once again in the same building where Reiche, employed his entire professional career by the City of Leipzig- ultumately reaching the status of "Senior Stadtmusicus" (Senior Performing City Musician) in 1719, perfomed his daily duties as Head "Stadt Pfeiffer".
In the painting Reiche is holding in his right hand, a pure-silver and gold ornimented "Clarino" trumpet in circular from, (and please, it is certainly not a horn!) which obviously is the true "Bach" trumpet, what else can it be?! In his left hand he is holding an Abblas Solo, perhaps his own composition?,... very probably! A flashy "signature fanfare" which he very surely performed from the "Rathhaus Turm" as a part of daily musical duties as Senior Stadt Pfeiffer of the City of Leipzig.
Mr. Steuart speculates, that because this instrument was made of pure Silver and Gold it was therefore very rare and extremely expensive.
He suggests that the instruemnt was most probably a personal gift from King August II to Reiche (for his 60th birthday?) in high appreciation of Reiche's exceptional musical abilities and continued loyal service to the Duke of Saxony and King King of Poland!
Other theories are that it is perhaps infact a much older instrument, made in the Nuernberg workshops of Johann Leonard Ehe I in the late 17th century or even earlier by another famous Nuernberg instrument maker, Johann Carl Ködisch, and originally for the Moravian Court of the Markgrafen of Olmuetz, that is, most specifically for the use of the composer and trumpeter Pavel Josef Vejvanovky (1633-1693). This however does not "fit" the time line.
Further speculations suggest it was even much older and that it was infact Anton Schnitzer who had built this special trumpet in the late 16th / early 17th century, since Schnitzer had created the most innovative instruments of his time, including the very famous "Pretzel Trumpet" for none other than Caesare Bendinelli, composer, author and principal trumpeter at both the Viennese court from 1567 to 1580 and there after at the Bavarian Court in Munich from 1580 til his death in 1617.
These ideas and speculations however interesting and "Romantic" in nature are not at all historically documented.
Some facts specific about the Tromba da caccia and it's use in Germany (Saxonia) however, are very clearly documented:
Since the German musicologist Michael Praetorius mentions and even clearly illustrates the "Clarino Trumpet" (in Coiled form) in his "Syntagma Musicom" published in Wolfenbüttel and Wittenberg (in three parts between 1614-1620) this kind of Circular Instrument was well known and widely performed upon long before Reiche was even born.We know too that Cantata 215 "Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen" was written by Johann Sebastian Bach specificaly for Reiche and to be performed by him on October 5th, 1734.
We know that Reiche performed regularily on this special Clarino instrument in Leipzig and on the fatefull night of October 5th to the 6th, 1734 he died of exhaustion (heart attack and/or a stroke?) on his way home, following the first performance of Cantata BWV 215! We know too that the perfomance took place outside and directly in front of the Historical City Hall in Leipzig and under no less than Johann Sebastian Bach's personal musical direction. We know aswell that Reiche was most certainly the Solo Trumpeter for whom Johann Sebastian Bach had written not only this work but as well as all of his most challenging and difficlut secular and religious compositions involving the Clarino dating from 1723 through to 1734, the Christmas Oratorio.
There is also no doubt that a very special colleagial relationship existed between these two exceptional musicians which began immediately after Bach's arrival in Leipzig in 1723, when Bach assumed the prestegious position of "Director Chori Musici Lipisiensis" (Musical Director of the City of Leipzig), a position he was to maintain until his death in 1750. Bach even revised several of his previous Cantatas to feature Reiche's extraordinary abilities on the Tromba da caccia.
One last and important fact that we are sure of:The very last musical statement of Reiche's life, as 1st Clarino in the final Coro: "Stifter Reiche, Beherrscher der Kronen" of Cantata 215, was a beautifully lyrical melody. Here Reiche was allowed to "sing" with his "Clarino" above the whole ensemble. Such lyrical, obligato parts were typically played on a Tromba da caccia, (circular Trumpet in Colied form) since these parts were necessarily required to be performed in perfect balance, and with unfailing intonation and musical inflection, supporting and often enhancing the soprano voice part.
Steuart, who in an attempt to perfect it's construction and understand and revive the original playing technique of the Coiled Trumpet /Tromba da caccia, has been seriously researching, building and rebuilding his own version of "Clarino" trumpet since 2015. He firmly believes that the special musical relationship between Reiche and Bach (although a total of only 11 years!) created the rare historical opportunity for the Art of Trumpet performance in ensmble context, to develop above and beyond it's former limited role of loud and dramatic musical "sound and fury" and forcefull military / fanfare style but in fact to be suddenly set at the fore front of Bach's most sensitive and interactive musical expressions.
The combination of Bach's music for the trumpet and Reiche's special performance abilities was the beginning of a new and much more lyrical musical role for the instrument to come with the invention of the Valve in 1812. One that through his special musical gifts and highly developed playing technique on the Tromba da caccia, Reiche quite obviously had perfected even in the early 18th century!
Since 1980, Steuart has aswell cooperated in research and development capacties on modern instruments, interacting and consulting with among other international instrument makers, the Yamaha Musical Instrument Company of Hamamatzu, Japan (i.e. when creating special instruments for the Bamberg Symphony Orchestras Trumpet Section and for both the "original" German Brass Quintet and later Large Ensemble), with Herbert Laetzsch / Hans-Hermann Nienaber, Bremen and Josef Tilz /Hablowitz and Josef Klier, Diespeck and Neustadt an der Eisch, Germany, for La Tromba Mouthpieces in Würzburg and last but not least with Zigmant Kanstul Musical Instruments of Anaheim, California.
He worked in both California and Germany from 1997 with Zigmant Kanstul on many instrument design, research and development cooperations , including Traditional and Romantic German and Austrian rotary-valve Symphonic Trumpets for both Soloists and Orchestral Musicians. And as well and specifcally for Baroque Music, his most remarkable contribution to the world of the trumpet artistry to date, is the celebrated Kanstul Model 1520 Bb/A/G piccolo trumpet! The original La Tromba Prototype "BAG", a Kanstul/ La Tromba Cooperation from 1997, is in fact shown on the R and D section of this website. Richard Carson Steuart continues to research, study and build refined instruments and mouthpieces, both of historical and modern design, primarily, but not exclusively for his own Artistic needs and these under his own exclusive La Tromba Brand,... Made in Germany.
The most recent example of this, the new La Tromba "Clarinoâ? trumpet pictured below, will, together other "prototype" and original La Tromba Instruments as well as the newest Kanstul/La Tromba Cooperation Instruments, were presented and performed on for the first time in public by Richard Carson Steuart, in a special lecture / concert-- that was film- documented on the 18th of November, 2017 at 3 P.M., in the "Historical City Hall" in Leipzig, Germany.
This Lecture/Concert with Interview was open to the general public and admission was free of charge!
Photos: Bernd Cramer
In August of 2017 Richard Carson Steuart completed the development of his Clarino trumpet, a "replica" of the exact intrument that was performed upon by Johann Sebastian Bach's famous "Solo Trumpeter", Johann Gottfried Reiche. He admits he was greatly inspired by both the mystery behind Elias Gottlob Haussmann"s portrait of Reiche and Bach's works, written specifically for Reiche, to be played specicially on his Clarino instrument. The original instrument, shown in Hausmann's painting, has just as Steuart's replica, has no valves, nor keys, nor slides, nor "intonation" holes of any kind!
Since there are no existing original historical versions of this intruments from which to develope construction plans (other than Elias Gottlob Haussmann"s portrait itself) Steuart decided to take the initiative and build the instrument himself, constructing it as close as possible to the intrument in the painting. Through personal and direct study, he has finally uncover the original technique of how Reiche, himself both a respected composer and a highly acclaimed virtuoso, was able to play Johann Sebastian Bach's demanding works on his mysterious and almost forgotten instrument!
"Künstlerisches Genie" wiederentdeckt
Eine kulturelle Ausgrabung
Richard Carson Steuart, Clarino-Projekt zu Leipzig
Der kanadische Trompetenvirtuose und ARD Preisträger Richard Carson Steuart beschäftigt sich aus seiner Praxis heraus nun seit über 5 Dekaden mit den Trompetenpartien, die Johann Sebastian Bach speziell für Johann Gottfried Reiche komponierte. Sie sind außergewöhnlich schwierig und passagenweise auf Gerade Naturtrompeten, wie sie zur Zeit Bachs geblasen wurden, nicht realisierbar. Weil Bach oft Töne verwendet, die auf der Naturtrompete sonst nicht vorhanden sind, werden Bachs Trompetenpartien in der modernen Zeit in der Regel auf kleinen, sogenannten Piccolo-Ventiltrompeten gespielt oder auf "Naturtrompeten" mit unhistorischen ??berblaslöchern oder wenn auf "authentisch" nachgebauten Instrumenten, dann leider mit historisch unbegründeten Feldtrompeten Mundstücken geblasen, um zu versuchen die schwierigen "Fremdtöne" leichter spielen zu können.
All dies ist leider im Tonlichen Ergebnis sowie im Sinne der homogenen und ausgeglichene Ensemblemischung in der praktischen Ausführung letztendlich unbefriedigend.
Nun, fragt Steuart, warum hat der berühmte Senior Stadtmusicus Johann Gottfried Reiche sich von Elias Gottlob Haußmann nicht mit der damals gebräuchlichen geraden Naturtrompete oder mit einem seiner vielen anderen Dienstinstrumente - Cornetto, Sackbutt, Waldhorn oder Geige - porträtieren lassen, sondern stattdessen mit einer "Trompete in Form eines Horns" - das "Clarino" oder auf Italienisch: "Tromba da caccia" (Jägertrompete)?
Um diese Frage zu beantworten, ließ sich Richard Carson Steuart Reiches Clarino Trompete und zahlreiche nachweislich zugehörige Mundstücke genauestens nachbauen. Er hat während seiner 3 jährigen Clarino Trompeten Forschung herausgefunden, dass Gottfried Johann Reiche eine spezielle Handreflexionstechnik anwendetet haben musste, die sonst nachweislich erst viel später in den Klassischen und Romantischen Epochen (spätes 18. bis Mitte 19. Jahrhundert) von Waldhornisten in ganz Europa verwendet wurde. ReicPartien he hatte diese Technik offenbar eigenständig zu so einer hohen Kunstform entwickelt das er Johann Sebastian Bach inspirierte noch längerer und noch virtuosere Clarinopartien zu Schrieben b.z.w. seine alte für Reiches extraordinäre kunstlerische fähigkeiten neu um zu Schreiben.
Gottfried Reiches Spieltechnik war offenbar revolutionär und einmalig für Leipzig, vielleicht sogar weltweit im späten 17. und frühen 18. Jahrhundert. Es ermöglichte dem ehrgeizigen Johann Sebastian Bach gleich bei seiner neuen Einstellung als Thomaskantor außergewöhnlich beeindruckende, sehr exponierte und höchst anspruchsvolle Trompetenpartien schon ab 1723 und bis hin zu Reiches plötzlichem Tod im Jahre 1734 explizit für ihn zu komponieren, so Steuarts These.
Erst nach intensiven ??bungen ist der internationale ARD Preisträger, Richard Carson Steuart inzwischen selber in der Lage auf diesem Instrument Reiches jene Töne, die innerhalb der Naturtonreihe sonst nicht existieren, sicher, kunstvoll, stark, sauber und vor allem dynamisch differenziert, gesanglich und expressiv musikalisch zu blasen.
Richard Carson Steuart wird die ursprüngliche und wahre "Bach"-Trompete Johann Gottfried Reiches als Solist und als musikalischer Leiter des von ihm neu formierten "Gottfried Reiche" Clarino-Ensembles zu Leipzig (zunächst in Streicher-Ensemble-Besetzung), bestehend aus sorgfältig ausgesuchten Spezialisten der Internationale und Leipziger Historischen Musikszene, offiziell präsentieren, erklären und zusammen mit der Star-Sopranistin der Oper Hannover, Carmen Fuggiss, die Kantate BWV 51 "Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen" von Johann Sebastian Bach am 18. November 2017 nach nun fast 300 Jahren in authentisch originaler Besetzung im Historischen Rathaussaal des Stadtgeschichtlichen Museums Leipzig wieder aufführen!
Der kanadische Trompetenvirtuose und u.a. ARD Preisträger Richard Carson Steuart beschäftigt sich seit 5 Decaden mit den berühmten Trompetenpartien, die Johann Sebastian Bach speziell ab 1723 für Johann Gottfried Reiche komponierte.
Steuart ließ Reiches Clarino-Trompete, verewigt in dem von Elias Gottlob Haußmann gemalten Portrait Reiches von 1726, genauestens nachbauen und wird diese ursprüngliche und wahre "Bach"-Trompete Reiches als Solist und als musikalischer Leiter des von ihm neu formierten "Gottfried Reiche" Clarino- Projekt zu Leipzig und The European Baroque Ensemble, bestehend aus Spezialisten der internationalen und Leipziger historischen Musikszene, offiziell präsentieren und erklären.
Zusammen mit der Star-Sopranistin der Staatsoper Hannover Carmen Fuggiss und Prof. Dr. Pauline Nobes, London England, als Leader / 1. Violine, wird Steuart mit Unterstützung des Direktors des Stadtgeschichtlichen Museums in einem Sonderkonzert u.a. die Kantate BWV 51 "Jauchzet Gott in allen Landen" von Johann Sebastian Bach nach fast 300 Jahren in authentisch originaler Besetzung am 18. November 2017, dem 350. Geburtsjahr von Johann Gottfried Reiche, im Historischen Rathaussaal des Stadtgeschichtlichen Museums Leipzig konzertant vorführen!
The Canadian Benefit Tour CD:
Music for the Trumpet Vol. I
Richard Carson Steuart's Early Study and Artisic Biography
Born on January 31st, 1956 in Weyburn, Richard moved with his family to Regina in 1960. His first musical instruction began on his 9th birthday under the tutelage of his father, Kenneth Leslie Steuart, a SaskTel Telecommunications Engineer and a serious brass-playing hobby musician.
Richard performed his first public concert as Cornet Soloist in Rosemont United Church in Regina, in 1966 together with Ms. Edith Chisholm and this after only one year of any kind of musical studies.
At age 11, Richard undertook his first "Jazz" tour as featured "junior" Trumpet Soloist as a part of the 1967 Canadian National Centenary Concert Festivities. He was accompanied by a professional Big Band led by his first teacher, Dr. John Harding.
Richard was a repeated Class A-Open First Prize winner in the Regina and Saskatchewan Music festivals and was as well the Junior First Prize Winner (at age 11) of the Canadian National Music Festival in 1967. Intensely involved in various musical groups in Regina and throughout Saskatchewan from the very beginning of his studies, he performed with the Salvation Army Brass, the Regina Police Boys and the Saskatchewan Youth Bands, the Regina Inter- Collegiate and Saskatchewan Youth Orchestras and the University of Saskatchewan Brass Quintet, Symphonic Concert and Jazz Big Bands.
Richard became a member of the Regina Symphony Orchestra 1969 at age 13, advancing to the Solo Trumpet position in the 1971/72 season. In 1970, at the age of 14, he accepted his first Trumpet Teaching- Assistantship under Dr. Mel Carey at the University of Saskatchewan, Regina Campus. Having previously studied Saxophone, Clarinet, Oboe and Piano at the Regina Conservatory, he also found time to teach beginner Clarinet and Saxophone for the Regina City School District.
From 1970 to 1975, he was Solo Trumpeter and featured Solist of the National Youth Chamber and Symphony Orchestras of Canada performing on extended Summer Concert tours in among other major Canadian cities: Vancouver, Toronto, Ottawa, Quebec and Montreal.
In 1976, at age 20 and already CBC Radio Soloist and Solo-trumpeter of Canadian Chamber Orchestra, he won both the First Prize at the Canadian National Music Festival in Toronto and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's Radio and Television Classical Solo-Instrumental Competition - the "CBC Talent Festivalâ? and this for all Wind Instruments. There after he was accepted into the famous Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, USA receiving a full 4 year Scholarship. He was as well awarded the first of three consecutive international Study Grants (1976-1978) from the Arts Council of Canada, with which he subsequently studied in Chicago and New York with the foremost members of the Symphony and Opera Orchestras of those major American cultural centres.
Travelling to Europe in the summer of 1978 as Solo Trumpet of the World Youth Orchestra, he completed his studies first in London and then Munich and accepted on November 4th the Solo Trumpeter position in the German Opera in Düsseldorf.
In February of 1979 he accepted the position as Solo Trumpeter of the world touring, "Bamberg Symphonikerâ?. He is the co-founder of among several other high profile ensembles, the German Brass Ensemble (1979), the Munich Brass (1983) the European Baroque (1989) and the "Prince Bishop"s Wind Ensembleâ? (1999).
Richard competed for and won both the German- ARD (1980) and Swiss- SRF (1981) International Radio and Television Competitions for the Trumpet as Solo Instrument.
His musical accomplishments were officially honoured by the Bavarian State Ministry of Culture when they created a special position for him in 1983 at the Music Conservatory / State University of Music in Wuerzburg, Northern Bavaria where he continues to teach both Historical and Modern Trumpet and Chamber Music today.
Through performing thousands of live concerts, producing over 20 Solo and Ensemble CDs from Classic to Jazz for his own CD "La Tromba Music Productionsâ? company alone, as well as recording with various top musical constellations as both Opera and Symphonic Solo-Trumpeter, Solo Concert Soloist, Chamber Ensemble and "Soloist-Leaderâ?, Mr. Steuart"s Classical Music experience has over the 50 years of his musical career become truly extensive.
As featured Recording-Artist for the CBC, WDR, BR, SDR, ARD, SRF, Radio and Television stations as well for the RCA, BMG, EMI, MMO and Konstantin and Koch- International CD and Film production companies and through touring with groups ranging from English and German Pop and Rock to Brass and Symphonic Concert Bands, diverse Jazz and Modern-Fusion Orchestras as well as international Historical Music Ensembles, yes even for major European and Hollywood Films his musical knowledge and experince has developed in a very broad spectrum.
Richard Carson Steuart"s teaching as Guest Professor in major conservatories and universities internationally and his Concert touring in Germany, Russia, the United States, Canada, China, Japan and throughout Europe, has contributed to the high acclaim he receives from his general public and his peers alike, and this as not only one of the foremost Trumpeters of his generation, but also as one of the world's most experienced, versatile and knowledgeable trumpet performers and teachers today.