Concert Information

Clarino / Tromba da caccia Project 2020

Clarino / Tromba da caccia Project 2020


J.S. Bach's Solo-Trumpeter,Gottfried Reiche and his Clarino Trumpet as “Tromba da caccia” Instrument: it's re-discovery, authentic musical application and newly discovered playing technique (including hand refelection) that allow a full cromatic / tempered playing technique as applied to the virtuoso works of Johann Sebastian Bach written and rewritten specifically for Gottfried Reiche from 1722 to 1734 by Johann Sebastian Bach!
Through building my own instrument and my personal and direct study, I have finally uncovered what I believe to be the original technique of how Reiche, himself both a respected composer and a highly acclaimed virtuoso, was able to play Johann Sebastian Bach's demanding new works (including the Christmas Oratorio) on his mysterious and 
almost forgotten instrument!


My Project "Clarino / Tromba da caccia Project 2020" objective is revive the original performance instrumenation of Bach works written for Gotffried Reiche and his intrument and to make a Recording (with Film Documentation) of both the Recording Sessions ("Making of")  and then perform Concerts using the Tromba da caccia instruments together with Baroque Orchestra, Choir and Solo Singers.

The projected Concert and Recording Programm will be:

Johann Sebastian Bach:

I Der Himmel lacht! Die Erde jubilieret  (BWV 31)
First performance on 9.4 1724 in Leipzig with Gottfried reiche as Solo Trumpeter on the Tromba da caccia

II Die Weltlichen Kanaten:
Tönet, ihr Pauken! Erschallet, Trompeten! (BWV 214)

First performance on 8. 12. 1733 in Leipzig

III Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen(215)
First performance on 5. 10. 1734 in Leipzig

IV Du Sollt Gott, deinen Herre, lieben (BWV 77)
First performance on 22. 08. 1734 in Leipzig 
Including the Aria: "Ach, es bliebt in meiner Liebe lauter Unvollkommenheit..."
performed on the Tromba da caccia

 

Alessandro Scarlatti:

Cantata for Sopran, Tromba da caccia and String Orchestra

"Su Le Sponde Del Tebro"

 

Pavel Josef Vevanovsky: 
Sonata á 4 in g-moll

for Tromba da caccia Strings and B.c. (Cembalo/ Organ)


Girolamo Fantinis
Sonata Prima in C  as well as selected Dances, Songs and Capprici

from „Modo per Imparare a Sonare di Tromba“ for Cembalo / Orgel

 

To support the costs for this project, including the building of the 3 Tromba da caccias following the already existing La Tromba Music Productions: TROMBA DA CACCIA Prototype, (developed over the past 5 years) I have applied for a Canada Council Arts Grant: „Explore and Create: Research and Creation”
I am very hopefull that this support will include funding for all aspects of this production including the Soloists, Orchestral Musicans, Correpetion and the Sound and Film Technicians.

The Time Line for entire Production is as follows:
The 3 Tromba da caccia Intruments are to be made by the German Horn and Trumpet Maker Christohper Cornford of Darmstadt, Germany, starting in early of May 2020 and following the already existing "La Tromba" Prototype.

In mid-July of 2020 the rehearsals should begin with the other two Tromba da caccia Players, followed in August by the Soloists with B.c.. In September the Orchestra will be added.

The distribution, exhibition dissemination and promotion of this project shall involve Film and Sound recordings that shall be released as both a CD and documentional DVDs, posted on the Richard Carson Steuart You-Tube, Richard Carson Steuart Soundcloud and on La Tromba Music / Webites to be used by International Concert and Promotion Agencies to organise International Tours in the near future,... to amoung countries my own beloved Canada.


To this end I have asked several fine musicians to be involved, including the excellent and very experienced French Trumpet Player, Marc Ullrich.
He is to be my second Solo- Tromba da caccia player.
I am very pleased to annouce he has agreed to be invovled in the project!

He and the recently deceised famous Trumpet Music Historian Dr. Eward H. Tarr are just I am, convinced that this instrument was certainly not a Horn. This too is the opinion of the German Music Historian Prof. Dr. Karl Dietrich Arnold Schering (1877-1941)(2), Editor of the Bach Year Book / Bach Jahrbuchs from 1904 to 1939 and author of the Article Zu Gottfried Reiches Leben und Kunst / Regarding Gottfried Reiche's Life and Art.
Schering reports that Horn playing, was not a part of “Stadtpfeiffer” duties at that time and continues that it was in fact prohibited by Mandated Law, for the Military Trumpet to be to played by any person or persons other than official “Hof Trumpeters”. He makes direct reference to that which was clearly stated in not one but two “Kurfürschliche Mandaten” / Electorial Mandates, namely the Madates “Against the Unauthrporised Playing of Trumpets and Beating of Miltitray Kettledrums” from 1661, by Chur Fürst Johann Georg and reinforced again in Dresden on the 23
rd of July 1711 by his successor “August der Starke”, Elector to Saxonia and later King of Poland, in which he signs as Augustus Rex this specific “Prohibition”.It was therefore clearly forbidden in Saxonia for a common City Musician (even one as highly respected as Bach's Solo-Trumpeter, Gottfried Reiche) to play the Natural- (Military) Trumpet. Hense Reiche must have performed exclusively upon a so called Italian Trumpet or Coiled-Trumpet (also called a Tromba da caccia) and certainly not the protected “Fanfare”- Hof / Military Trumpet that many mistakenly believe he performed on.

Added to this, it is unimaginable for one to consider that Reiche would have ever allowed himself to be painted in an Officially Commssioned City Portrait with any other instrument than that with which he himself regarded most dearly, (although he was as Stadt Pfeiffer contractually required to perform on several instruments, including the Oboe, Cornetto and Violin) and most especially the one had made him quite famous in Leipzig over the previous 25 years of his work for the both the City and in diverse University and Rathhaus Concerts.

Reiche had  aswell performed in Cantatas in the Nikolai and Thomas Churches on the Tromba da caccia for 2 decades before J. S. Bach's arrival in Leipzig in 1723 under Bach's direct predessor, the former “Thomas Church Organist” and "Director Chori Musici Lipisiensis" / Musical Director of the City of Leipzig, Johann Kuhnau (1660-1722).
Kuhnau was from 1701 to his death in 1722 also University Music Director and successor to a further famous Leipzig Church Musician, Johann Schelle.
This means Gottfried Reiche was through his associations with both Schelle and Kuhnau and in his duties as Stadt Pfeiffer a prominent and highly regarded musician long before Johann Sebastian Bach ever arrived in Leipzig.


Nun, having been placed in a number of other locations over the past almost 3 centuries, this extraordinary painting hangs once again in the same building where, employed his entire professional career by the City of Leipzig- ultumately reaching the status of "Senior Stadtmusicus" (Senior Performing City Musician) in 1719,  Reiche performed his daily duties up to his sudden death in 1734.

In the painting  he is holding a pure-silver and gold ornamented "Clarin" trumpet in “circular form”, (and please, rememeber it is certainly not a horn!) which for my way of thinking must be, yes, is obviously the true "Bach" trumpet on which he performed, ... what else can it be?! 
In his left hand he is holding an „Abblas“ piece, (perhaps his own composition?,... very probably!) which he performed as his “Encore” (sign off) at the end of his Tower music duties. A flashy "signature fanfare" which he very surely regularily performed from the "Leipziger Rathhaus Turm" as a part of daily musical duties as Senior Stadt Pfeiffer of the City of Leipzig.

It has been postulated, that because this instrument was made of pure Silver and Gold it was therefore very rare and other wise extremely expensive. I suggest that the instrument could have been a personal gift from King August II to Reiche (for his 60th birthday?) in high appreciation of “exceptional musical abilities and continued loyal service to the Duke of Saxony and King of Poland!”? 

Other theories as to the origin of this intrument come for example from the American Scholar and Trumpeter Don L. Smithers, who suggests that perhaps it is a much older instrument, made in the Nuremberg workshops of Johann Leonard Ehe I in the late 17th century or even by another famous Nuremberg instrument maker, Johann Carl Ködisch. Some think it was originally for the Moravian Court of the Markgrafen of Olmuetz, and was most specifically constructed for the use of the Court Composer and Senior Court Trumpeter, Pavel Josef Vejvanovky (1633-1693). These postulations, in my opinion, do not "fit" the possible time line and have nop real basis of fact.

Further speculations suggest it was even much older instrument and that it was in fact Anton Schnitzer who had built this special trumpet in the late 16th / early 17th century, since Schnitzer had created the most innovative instruments of his time, including the very famous "Pretzel Trumpet" for none other than Caesare Bendinelli, composer, author and principal trumpeter at both the Viennese court from 1567 to 1580 and there after at the Bavarian Court in Munich from 1580 until his death in 1617.

These ideas and speculations however interesting and colorfull in nature, are not historically supported nor documented in any historical texts.

Some specific  facts about the Tromba da caccia and it's use in Germany (Saxonia) in te 17th and 18th century are however very clearly documented.

Since the German musicologist Michael Praetorius mentions and even clearly illustrates the "Clarino Trumpet" (in Coiled form) in his work "Syntagma Musicum" published in Wolfenbüttel and Wittenberg in three parts between 1614-1620, this kind of Coiled Trumpet was well known and widely performed upon in Europe and this long before Reiche was even born.

We know that Reiche performed regularly on this special Clarino instrument in Leipzig. We know too that Cantata 215 "Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen" was written by Johann Sebastian Bach specifically for Reiche to be performed by him on October 5th, 1734. which was the fateful night when he died of exhaustion (heart attack and/or a stroke?) on his way home, following the first performance of this Cantata!  We know too that the performance took place outside and directly in front of the Historical City Hall in Leipzig and under no less than Johann Sebastian Bach's personal musical direction.
We know as well that Reiche was most certainly the Solo Trumpeter for whom Johann Sebastian Bach had written not only this work but as well as all of his most challenging and difficult secular and religious compositions involving the Clarino dating from 1723 through to 1734, including the Christmas Oratorio. 

There is also no doubt that a very special relationship between these two exceptional musicians began immediately after Bach's arrival in Leipzig in 1723, when Bach assumed the prestigious position of "Director Chori Musici Lipisiensis" (Musical Director of the City of Leipzig), a position he was to maintain until his death in 1750.
Bach even revised several of his previous Cantatas composed in Weimar and even earlier to accommodate and even feature Reiche's extraordinary abilities on the Tromba da caccia.

One last and important fact that we are sure of: The very last musical statement of Reiche's life, as 1st Clarino in the final Coro: "Stifter Reiche, Beherrscher der Kronen" of Cantata 215, was a beautifully lyrical melody. Here Reiche was allowed to "sing" with his "Clarino" above the whole ensemble.
Such lyrical, obligato parts were typically played on a Tromba da caccia, (circular trumpets in Coiled form) since these parts were necessarily required to be performed in perfect balance, and with unfailing intonation and musical inflection, supporting and enhancing the soprano voice part.

In an attempt to perfect it's construction and understand and revive the original playing technique of the  Coiled Trumpet /Tromba da caccia, I have been seriously researching, building and rebuilding my own version of the "Clarino" trumpet since 2015. I firmly believe that the special musical relationship between Reiche and Bach (although a total of only 11 years!) created the rare historical opportunity for the art of trumpet performance to develop above and beyond it's former limited role of loud and dramatic musical "sound and fury" on the Military Trumpet of that time. To go beyond the usual forceful military fanfare style of the time and to be suddenly set at the forefront of Bach's most sensitive and lyrically interactive musical expressions in both his Sacred Cantatas as well as his worldly works performed in Leipzig from 1723 was the goal of the development of this high art of Clarion playing as propigated by Gottfried Reiche and his colleagues.

Reiche quite obviously had perfected his special musical gifts and highly developed Tromba da caccia playing technique, even before Bach's arrival in Liepzig. However the combination of Bach's music for the trumpet and Reiche's special performaning abilities allowed the beginning of a new and much more lyrical musical role for the Natural Trumpet and this is especially evident in J. S. Bach's Choral Music involving the Tromba da caccia. 

 

J. S. Bach's works are truly the ultimate challenge when playing the Tromba da caccia, especially in the Clarino range!

After a series of my own (very early) performance in 1970 of among other works “Let the Bright Seraphim” from Handel's Samson together with the internationally acclaimed Canadian Vocal Artist Maureen Forrester (1) (then Chair of the Canada Council for the Arts) I was engaged to recorded among other Baroque works for Solo Trumpet: the Purcell Sonata in D, Purcell's ( or rather what now is widely believed to be John Stanley's) “Trumpet Tune”) and the Torelli “8G” Sonata.
I recorded these at the tender age of 14 on the Modern D Trumpet with piano accompaniment for the CBC Radio, Regina. (Radio Producer: Rudi Blancher)

(1)Maureen Kathleen Stewart Forrester, CC, O.ON, OQ, opera and recital singer, teacher, arts administrator (born 25 July 1930 in Montreal, QC; died 16 June 2010 in Toronto, ON). Maureen Forrester was one of Canada’s greatest and best-known classical singers. She was renowned for her remarkable trumpet-like contralto and her deeply emotive musical interpretations. The only classical performer other than Glenn Gould to be inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame, she was admired greatly at home and abroad for her recitals, recordings and opera performances. She also served as chair of the Canada Council for the Arts, director of du Maurier Arts and chancellor of Wilfrid Laurier University.


I have ever since been fascinated by Baroque repertoire with voice and most especially the works of Johann Sebastian Bach and have since my relocation in 1978 to Europe recorded among other of his Bach's works, his Second Brandenburg Concerto.
An especially noteworthy recording which was done “Live” in the Historical Chapel of the Cadolzburg (
Burg des Kadold) near Fuerth, Lower Franconia. This special historical location dates back to 1157 when the reeve of Kadolzburg, Helmericus de Kadoldesburc, agreed on a territorial exchange between the Diosise of Wuerzburg and the Abbey of Heibronn. The Castle was in turn in the year 1397 given together with “all the land under the mountains" (“... untergebirgisch”), including the residence of Cadolzburg to Fredrick VI who 20 years later received the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the title Elector of Brandenburg as well. His dynasty would later become the Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire of Germany.
 

As Solo Trumpeter of the Bamberg Symphony (beginning in the fall of 1979) I also became co-leader/founder of the German Brass Ensemble with which I recorded an all J. S. Bach CD in 1985 (EMI-Electrola: “Bach 300”) . The works on this CD were performed by a large (10 member) Brass Ensemble from the leading Brass Soloists from the top German Symphonic Orchestras of that time (including members of the Berlin Philharmonic, Bavarian Radio, Hamburg Radio and Opera, Stuttgart Radio and the Bamberg Symphony Orchestras, respectively) and was recorded exclusively on modern Orchestral instruments.

Having privately studied the “vented” Baroque Trumpet beginning in the second half of the 1980's I applied for a Canada Council Advanced Studies Grant and took provate lesson in London (from Michael Laird), Linz (from Friedemann Immer and Basel (Edward H.Tarr) and in fulfillment of that Study Grant I recorded my first “Historical Trumpet” Solo CD in 1988/89 entitled “la tromba”, on which I performed works for both Modern and Baroque Trumpet while conducting the ensembles and orchestras involved. Two works that are most notable with respect to my pervious work on the Baroque trumpet are: Giovnanni Bonaventura Viviani's “Sonata per Tromba Solo” with Orgen Accomp.; G.F.Handel's “Let the Bright Seraphim” from Samson with Soprano and Organ Accomp.; Arcangelo Corelli's “Sonata per Tromba e due Violino e B. c. in D Dur with 2 violins, Cello and Cembalo Accomp. and Leopold Mozart's “Konzert für Trompete und Orchestra” in D Dur with full 20 memebr Baroque Chamber Orchestra accompaniment.

Since then and especially since 2015 I have been concentrating not only on the construction of my own Tromba da caccia, built after Haussmann's Painting of Gottfired Reiche from 1726 but also have added my considerations to the “construction plans” that I had purchased from the “Germanische National Museum” in Nueremburg in the early 1980s.
These construction plans depict a “Jäger Trumpet” attributed to the workshop of Balthasar Fuerst from 1770 and even though these specific construction plans (unsigned but probably done by Robert Barkley in 1977/78) are admittedly of an Intrument built more than 50 years later than that held by Reiche in Haussmann's Portriat, all possible first hand historical information as to the proper construction of such an instrument is I believe necessary.
As too, was my special opportunity to look closely at and even briefly perform on an excellent replica of a Tromba da caccia which was brought to me directly out of the Grazzi (Leipziger University) Museum for me to present at my Concert-Lecture in the “Historical Rathaus” which took place on the 18
th of November 2017.
Please see a portion of this LIVE lecture concert on YouTube:
Richard Carson Steuart - Clarino Projekt zu Leipzig Part 1

Although this Instrument came directly to me out of one of the museum's Glass Display-Cases and was infact built in Markt Neukirchen for the Leipzig Museum in 1957 as a copy of a no longer existing Historical instrument made in the Pfeiffer workshop in 1697, I was able to play it without any preparation usins Hand reflection. Infact it allowed remarkable response and excellent intonation when I completely spontaneously performed on it that afternoon. The major differences between this special replica and various other instruments made in Germany at the time of Reiche and Bach, are most notably it's very small (modern horn-sized) mouthpiece “shank” and corresponding mouthpiece with respective (extremely) small throat bore (ca, 3,00 mm), and large flat “Trumpet like” cup shape and it's conical lead-pipe, extending well into the main bore of the instrument.
This does not mean it should be confused with a “Horn” of any kind, since the Bell size and shape and mouthpiece cup shape are typically “Trumpet like”. It's construction rather is almost as if it were to be desribed as quite “Modern” in form.
It should be noted that Modern piston-valve trumpets have very similar conical Lead-pipes and Bell shapes as this Pfeiffer model and variation of a Tromba da caccia. This which allows it to be played in the higher over tone range, that is easily up to C'' and beyond by some specialists.
And this is exactly what Reiche and many of his colleagues at that time was required to do: play accurately and securely up into 19
th and 20th and even, in the famous 2nd Brandenburg Concerto, up to the 21 and 22 Overtone / Partial on an instrument completely without valves or slides or holes or keys of any kind... a truly “Natural” Trumpet. But how was this possible?

From the numerous writings by Historical Music Scholars on the subject of the Tromba da caccia and it's musical application before and during the time of J. S. Bach, I have build my Thesis and in fact my Instrument itself and on the most probable use by Gottfried Reiche of the Tromba da caccia (coiled trumpet) as his main High Brass Instrument using hand reflection. Astute observations and writings have been made by both the German Musicologist Karl Dietrich Arnold Schering (2) (1877-1941) in his work; “ Zu Gottfried Reiches Leben und Kunst” and the American Trumpeter and Music Historian Don Leroy Smithers (*1933) in his most revealing work; ”Gottfried Reiches Ansehen und sein Einfluß auf die Musik Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben und Werk” (Bach-Jahrbuch 73, 113–150, 1987 ) about the Baroque Trumpet and it's influence and importance in earlier Musical Eras.

Another excellent excellent coiled
trumpet that i had the opportunty to study in the early 1990s was bulit in 1959 by Helmut Finke a student and trumpet colleague of the Historical Trumpet “revival” pioneer Walter Holy of Cologne, Germany. It is with this trumpet, that Holy recorded the Second Brandenburg Concerto in Vienna with the famous Musician and Musicologist Niklas Harnoncourt in 1964.
Although in my opinion a very acceptable recording and a certainly a ground breaking attempt at returning to the Original Instrumentation of Bach works, this instrument and the playing technique used, cannot be regarded as truly “Authentic”.
To help with intonation problems, an instrument maker, Otto Steinkopf, who had been reconstructing woodwind instrument for 
Moeck, Celle, suggested putting in tone holes. In addition to correcting intonation it also was important in aiding in accuracy in the high register. The 3 “correction” tone holes were covered with 3 fingers of the right hand. This form of vented “Baroque” Trumpet was further developed in the late sixties and early seventies. Trumpets in Straight “Short form” (with double tuning bows, each with “3 tunig holes”) were constructed by Adolf Egger of Basel and developed together with the German Baroque Trumpeter Friedemann Immer and the American Trumpeter and Musicologist Dr. Edward H. Tarr of Basel. Much later intruments were developed in England in a Long form with four tuning holes by among other English Trumpeters Steven Kevey and Michael Laird.

 

To these most important observation and developments I suggest a return to the contribution that Reiche's early use (perhaps even first application therefore his “research and creation”?) of what was much later applied and highly documented as a “Hand- Stopping” technique for the “Wald” Horn and the curved Straight Trumpet of the Early Classical period. This Hand Refection technique and his other wise exceptional performing abilities was I believe his greatest contribution to the ART of Trumpet performance at that time. This technique was used by orchestral Trumpeters and Horn Soloists of the Early Classical and Romantic musical Eras to both phrase, articulate and most importantly perfectly “intonate” the demanding music written for their instruments by Mozart and even Beethoven and this for their respective Orchestral and Solo works from the end of the 18th and well in to the the 19th Century.
The
Clarino Trumpet is an extremely "dangerous" intrument to perform on at the best of times, because, like any natural resonating instrument it is difficult to "control" in the high register, (especially without any intonation holes nor slides nor keys of any kind, just as the Tromba da caccia” was originally played) and both excellent ear training and an advanced emboucher and breathing development were and still are absolutely necessary to perform consistently on this extremely sensitive instrument.
Added to this and most importantly, a deeper understanding and application of the both Tounge Positioning techniques (so called “Lipping“ or in German “Treiben and Fallenlassen” of tones to improve intonation) and the Hand- Reflextion technique that I propose cannot be circumvented if, in my opinion, one wishes to master this difficult instrument and to authentically perform Bach's demanding works on it successfully!


Since there are neither hand-written technical descriptions, printed method books, nor any historical performance explanations as to how this Tromba da caccia instrument was originally played, I firmly believe, after working on this project for almost five years, that only through very methodical study, together with 2 and more Tromba da caccia playing Colleagues, will I be able able to perform the works of J. S. Bach using both the “hand- reflection” (quasi stopping) and other original historical playing techniques and through this further practical study eventually be able to share the superlative musical qualities of this special instrument and it's technical playing knowledge, with the modern music world!

(2)
Karl Dietrich Arnold Schering (born April 2, 1877 in Breslau, † March 7, 1941 in Berlin) was a German musicologist and music critic. Schering grew up in Dresden as the son of the art publisher Garl Gustav Schering, who took over the art publisher Gustav Lohse there. He first attended the Dresden high school, learned to play the violin with Henri Petri and received music theory lessons. After graduating from high school in 1896 at the Kreuzgymnasium, he studied violin with Joseph Joachim at the Royal University of Music and composition with Reinhold Succo. From 1898 to 1902 he studied musicology with Oskar Fleischer and Carl Stumpf as well as literary history and philosophy u. a. with Wilhelm Dilthey at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin. In 1900 he moved to Adolf Sandberger in Munich and then to Hermann Kretzschmar in Leipzig. 1900/01 he performed as a one-year volunteer military service in an infantry regiment. In 1902 he received his doctoral thesis on the history of the instrumental (violin) concerto up to A. Vivaldi. [1] In 1907 he habilitated at the University of Leipzig with the writing The Beginnings of the Oratorio, which he published in 1911 in an expanded form under the title History of the Oratorio. He then became a private lecturer in the history and aesthetics of music at the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Leipzig (from 1908) and a lecturer in music history at the Royal Conservatory of Music in Leipzig (from 1909) then for the signals for the musical world. He also became a member of the International Music Society. From 1903 to 1905 he was the editor of the New Magazine for Music. He was a committee member of the New Bach Society in Leipzig and from 1904 to 1939 editor of the Bach Yearbook. In 1927 Schering became Chairman of the Handelgesellschaft and Chairman of the Commission for Monuments of German Tonkunst. He also headed the Collegia musica in Leipzig, Halle and Berlin. In 1927 he was made an honorary member of the Russian Imperial Institute for Art History in Leningrad. From 1928 he taught as a full professor of musicology (thus also the successor of Hermann Abert) and director of the music history seminar at the University of Berlin. His academic students included a. Adam Adrio, Helmut Banning, Helmut Boese, Wolfgang Boetticher, Siegfried Borris, Ernesto Epstein, Wilibald Gurlitt, Anneliese Landau, Helmuth Osthoff, Richard Petzoldt, Eberhard Rebling, Otto Riemer, Brigitte Schiffer, Hans Schnoor, Walter Serauky and Hellmuth Christian Wolff.

(3)
Don Leroy Smithers (born February 17, 1933 in New York City) is an American music historian and interpreter on natural trumpet and zinc, pioneer in reviving the game on the historically true natural trumpet. After studying at the Universities of Hofstra, New York and Columbia, Don Smithers received his doctorate in music history in Oxford in 1967, then became an associate professor at Syracuse University and in 1975 lecturer in music history and historical performance practice at the Royal Conservatory, The Hague, The Netherlands. As a music historian, Don Smithers has done pioneering research on the baroque trumpet, its social and historical context, and its allegorical aspect, and has published numerous articles and books. He is particularly interested in the works of J.S. Bach and the parts for brass instruments they contain. Don Smithers played a key role in reviving historically based playing techniques on authentic instruments and mouthpieces.Smithers has also contributed to the rediscovery of numerous important forgotten works, including complete music from the archives of the episcopal residence in Kroměříž (Czech Republic), which contains important works by Beaver, Schmelzer and Vejvanovský for trumpet. In 1968, Smithers set up a copy of the entire microfilm collection at Syracuse University. More recently Smithers was responsible for the film adaptation of all the manuscripts of the Schlossarchiv Sondershausen, including a large part of Gottfried Heinrich Stölzel's surviving cantatas. After early recordings with ensembles such as New York Pro Musica, Musica Reservata, and Early Music Studio, Smithers began solo recording on the trumpet and prong with ensembles from England, Italy, and Germany. He made numerous solo recordings and was on the first complete recording of the cantatas J.S. Bach played on original instruments under Gustav Leonhardt and Nikolaus Harnoncourt.


The tutti rehearsals with recording shall begin on the 12 of October in St. Burkhard Church in Wuerzburg and continue to the 15 of October.
The Concert is to take place on the 17th in St. Burkhard Church in Wuerzburg.

Artists invovled in the Clarino / Tromba da caccia Project 2020 include:

Marc Ullrich: Tromba da caccia.
Mr. Ullrich began studying the trumpet with René Christ, a professor in the Mulhouse Conservatory, his home town in Alsace. Awarded the "Prix d'Excellence" in 1969, he continued his studies in the Conservartoire Régional de Versailles in the class of Roger Delmotte, Solo Trumpeter in the Paris Opera. Receiving the "Premier Prix" in 1970, he joined the class of Maurice André's at the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique de Paris. In 1971 he became Principal Trumpeter of the
Orchestre symphonique de Mulhouse: part of the Opéra du Rhin (Mulhouse, Colmar and Strasbourg).
For almost fourty years he has played the entire Baroque repertoire for one or more trumpets and strings on Modern Trumpet with this ensemble and also recorded this music in France. (Arion, Lyrinx).
In 1977 he was appointed Solo Trumpeter of the Radiosinfonieorchester Basel and in 1982 he began to study Baroque trumpet with Prof. Edward H. Tarr at the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis. Soon thereafter he particpated in many concerts together with Dr. Tarr as both soloist or ensemble member throughout Europe, and participated in diverse recordings. (Archive, Erato, Nonesuch, etc.). He was also Edward H. Tarr's teaching assistant in the Schola Cantorum in Basel.
In 2019 he retired from Orchestral work after 42 years of service.
Marc Ullrich has aswell played numerous concerts , recorded by Naxos in the series "The Art of the Baroque Trumpet".
I have worked with Marc since 1982 and recorded several CDs and performed numerous Concerts with him as both his duo partners on Baroque and Modern trumpet as well as under my Musical direction of the Deutsche Kammer Solisten (German Chamber Soloists) Chamber Orchestra. He has since 1999, been a regular performing and recording member of my Fürstbischöfliches Bläser Consortium (Prince Bischop of Wuerzburgs Wind Ensemble).

Mr. Ullrich is a co-founder of various chamber ensembles, including the “Baroque” Chamber Orchestra "La Follia" and the International Brass Virtuosi” Brass Ensemble lead by me and with which he was awarded a Prize in 1986 at the Narbonne International Brass Ensemble Competition from a Jury headed by Maurice André.
In 1999 he toured throughout Europe with the Monteverdi Choir, accompanied by the English Baroque Soloists, under
John Elliot Gardiner, as part of the J.S. Bach Pilgrimage, performing exclusively on the “Vented” Baroque Trumpet with amoung other Co Baroque Trumpeters Niklas Eklund. Particularly noteworthy are the Live recordings of all concerts at Archiv, including the live recording (DVD) of the Christmas Oratorio in the Herderkirche in Weimar in 1999 performed on the Vented” (three holed) Baroque Trumpet.

I asked Marc to write something about our past cooperation and he wrote:
I, Marc Ullrich,was asked by Mr. Steuart to write a very short summary of my Professional musical cooperation(s) with him over the past 40 years, a most pleasurable request, that I herewith gladly fulfill.
I first met Mr. Steuart during the German International Classical Trumpet (ARD Radio and Television) Competition in September of 1980 of which he was the winner where we be came instant friends. When I met him again in 1981 when he played in a Concert in Basel as, once again the winner of this second most famous Classical Trumpet Competion; the Geneve (Swiss International Radio and Televison Solo Trumpet Competition) he invited me to perform with him as his Duo Partner in Germany.

Our first Concerts were “Gala Concerts” in the Historical “Hercules Saal” in the Munich Residenz performing Baroque works for two Modern Trumpets: Vivaldi, Biber, Mannfredini, etc., together with Munich Chamber Orchestra conducted by Hans Stadelmaier. In 1985 he formed the International Brass Virtuosi (Brass Qunitett) and invited me to be his Trumpet "Co-leader" for both Concerts and CD recordings.With this ensemble we won the International Brass Quintett Competion in Narbonne, France in 1986 with my former teacher Marice André as the Jury Chairman.

Over the past 40 years he has repeatedly invited me to perform and record with him in various Ensemble Projects that he has initiated and lead from Large Trumpet Ensembles and Modern Brass Quintetts perfoming on Modern Instruments to various forms of Chamber Music on both Period (Historical) and Modern instruments. We also performed several Concerts with Organ and Chamber Orchestral accompaniment.In 2015 I performed in an extended series Solo Concert Series as Mr. Steuart Duo Partner commemorating his 50 Years of Professional Musical Performance.
During the entire time I have known Mr. Steuart has repeatedly amazed me with his high level of most serious and professional musical leadership as well as his exceptional organisational abilities. He has at the same time continually inspired me by his exceptionally intensive, musical creativity. He has recently visited me here in France and presented to me his exciting prototype "Tromba da caccia", Coiled Trumpet Intrument, which I believe is a truly excellent replica of the original Tromba da caccia pictured in the famous Oil- Portrait of Gottfried Reiche. Mr. Steuart very convincingly demonstrated to me his re-discovered historical playing technique on his instrument using amoung other techniques, his rediscovered "hand-refection" technique.
I am therefore most pleased that he has once again invited me to be involved with this, Clarino / Natural Trumpet / Tromba da caccia Project,which I firmly believe promises to be a very important international contribution to Historical Trumpet Research and Performance.

As Concert- Master and String Specialist, I have asked Professor Doctor Pauline Nobes of London, England to lead the Baroque String Ensemble for this project that she will organise herself to this end.


Prof. Dr. Pauline Nobes, Baroque violin, Leader:

Pauline Nobes is recognised as one of Europe’s foremost specialists in historical performance practice. She has recorded and performed extensively with ensembles such as The English Baroque Soloists, The English Concert and as leader for The Academy of Ancient Music, Kölner Akademie and Musica Antiqua Köln.Pauline guest leads Das Neue Orchester and opera orchestras including Frankfurt and Madrid.
Her passion for teaching continues as Professor for Baroque violinat the Musikhochschule Würzburg (Germany) and at the Royal Northern College of Music. She was recently awarded the position of Extraordinary Professor at Stellenbosch University (South Africa).
Pauline’s Ph. D. research
focused on the unaccompanied solo violin repertory before 1750.
Her on going research reveals
‘Musick’ in Manchester from 1744/45.
Pauline Nobes musical life began as a brass player: these beginnings are not forgotten: she recorded the solo trumpet role in Beethoven's Leonore with Sir John Eliot Gardiner‘s Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique after concerts in Salzburg and New York.


I asked Pauline to write something about our past cooperation and she wrote:

My name is Pauline Nobes and I am head of the Baroque Faculty of Music at the Hochschule für Musik (University of Music) in Wuerzburg, Germany. I have as well taught for over 2 decades at among other Musical Institutions the Royal Northern College of Music, in Manchester, England.
I have known Mr. Steuart since 2005 when I first came to the University here in Germany as Baroque Violin teacher. I have found him to be a amiable and conscientious colleague. We have taught and performed together in various projects both within and outside of the University here during this time I have also heard Mr. Steuart in diverse Solo Concerts when he has performed in on both Modern and Historical Instruments. I have seen portions of his brilliant Lecture - Recording in Leipzig in November of 2017, presenting and demonstrating his new Tromba da caccia replica construction and was personally present at his fascinating lecture here at the University in January of 2018* in which he defended his Thesis of the “Hand Reflection” as a technique used on the Tromba da caccia.
I am therefore very pleased to be invited by him to be involved as both Concert Master and String Ensemble Leader for his
Clarino / Tromba da caccia Project, which I firmly believe to be very important to the furthering of Historical Trumpet Research and Performance most especially for the works of Johann Sebastian Bach.

*
Reference to:“Gesprächskonzert” January, 2018: University of Music Wuerzburg

J. S. Bach und Johann Gottfried Reiche
„Vom Wunder der musikalischen Natur”
– das Clarino des Johann Gottfried Reiche

Richard Carson Steuart, Tromba da caccia
Helmut M. Timpelan (Musikforscher), Cembalo

 

As my Sopran Duo Partner I have asked the lovely German Soprano Carmen Fuggiss to be involved in this project.
I have a had the great pleasure of working together with Carmen for over thirty years in various CD Recordings and Concerts (involving Orchestra, Piano, Organ, Cembalo and Guitare accompaniment) and have found her to be not only an excellent musician; capable of excellent music making in a variety of Gendre, but to be an extremely sensitive but at the same time truly inpirational and professionally realiable colleague.


A short Biography  ofCarmen Fuggiss:
Ms. Fuggiss grew up in Freiburg, where at the age of 15 she sang in the choir of the Städtische Bühnen (City Theater). She was active in radio recordings and solo appearances and worked with Anneliese Rothenberger at the ZDF (Second German Television) in 1983.

She studied at the music academies in Karlsruhe and Frankfurt in Germany, where Armand MacLane-Lanier her most influential teacher and thereafter at the Mozarteum Salzburg, Austria with Hanna Ludwig. Majoring in Singing, Piano and Opera.After completing her studies, she began her artistic career at Mainfranken Theater Würzburg and at the Nationaltheater Mannheim.
In 1993 she received an engagement at the State Opera in Hanover, where she has worked as a lyrical coloratura soprano with a focus on parts from Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to Richard Strauss. In addition, she distinguished herself in parts of the Italian subject. Her most important opera roles include Pamina (The Magic Flute), Susanna (The Marriage of Figaro), Constance (The Abduction from the Seraglio), Lucia (Lucia di Lammermoor), Gilda (Rigoletto), Sophie (The Rosenkavalier), Zerbinetta (Ariadne on Naxos) ), Alban Bergs Lulu and Aribert Reimanns Melusine.
In numerous radio and television productions, Carmen Fuggiss has shown her versatility in various genres from the Middle Ages to the modern, from Jazz to Chansons.

Carmen Fuggiss has worked with among other Conductors Georg Solti, Michael Gielen, Kent Nagano, Fabio Luisi, Semjon Bytschkow, Lothar Zagrosek, Heinrich Schiff, Hubert Soudant and Ingo Metzmacher.


I too have been fortunate in having received acceptance of my invitaion by two excellent Male singers for thsi Project: namley Kenneth Beal and Sven Fürst, both of whom I have very successfully work in the past.
Kenneth Beal
was born in Canada. He finished his Education at the University of Western Ontario (B.Mus. and B.Ed.) and the University of Toronto (Master of Music and a Diploma in Opera Performance).

His Vocal performing ranges from Opera to Oratorio and Art Song. Very soon after his Graduation, he made his first Recording for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). He was also a Finalist in the CBC National Music Competition.

Kenneth was engaged with the L'Atelier lyrique de L'Opéra de Montréal where he sang such Roles as Rodolfo in Puccini's La Boheme, Ferrando in Mozart's Cosi fan tutte , Don Ramiro in Rossini's La Cenerentola, Edgardo in Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor and also Nemorino in L'Elisir d'amore.

He performed in numerous Oratorios such as Rossini's Stabat Mater, Bach's St. John's Passion and St. Mathew's Passion, Haydn's Die Schöpfung , Beethoven's Ninth Symphony and Handel's The Messiah.

His European Debut came at the 'Rossini Festival' with the Frankfurt Kammeroper where he sang the Role of Dorvil from the Opera La Scala di Seta. In the same year he signed a permanent Contract with the Mainfranken Theater Wuerzburg where he is still working today.

In Wuerzburg, as well as in many other larger Theaters in Germany, Kenneth has sung such Roles as, Camille de Rossillon from Lehar's The Merry Wives of Winsor, Belmonte in Mozart's Enführung aus dem Serail and Faust from Gounod's Faust.

Since 1999 Kenneth has as well held the Position of Voice Teacher at the University of Wuerzburg.

Sven Fürst, Bass:
Sven Fürst studied in the singing class of Prof. Monika Bürgener at the University of Music / Würzburg and completed the advanced training class with honors in 2002. He visited the Master Classes of Prof. Ingeborg Hallstein and Prof. Helmut Deutsch, participating in various CD productions and radio recordings. Sven Fürst is the First Prize Winner of the 1999 Armin Knab competition, winner of the “Debut in Meran” competition in 2005, was scholarship holder of the Richard Wagner Society in 2000 and is a regular Jury Member of the National German Student Competition (“Jugend musiziert” ).
Sven Fürst maintains extensive concert activity in Germany with a repertoire that includes Oratorial works from Early Baroque to Modern, works with orchestras such as the Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra, the Prague Philharmonic Orchestra or the Baden-Baden Symphony Orchestra, 
aswell as with the Würzburg Oratorio Choir and the Würzburg Monteverdi Choir. Sven Fürst has been a guest at the theaters in Würzburg, Koblenz, Eisenach and Meiningen.

As a member of the Junge Oper Köln he sang the father in "Hansel and Gretel", Papageno in the "Magic Flute" and Guglielmo in Mozart's "Cosi".

In 2010 he made his Switzerland debut at Theater St. Gallen in the production of Benjamin Switzerland's opera "Jakob von Gunten".


In August of 2017 I completed the initial constructural development of my Clarino / Tromba da caccia, a "replica" of the exact intrument that was performed upon by Johann Sebastian Bach's famous "Solo Trumpeter", Johann Gottfried Reiche. Since there are no existing original historical versions of this intruments from which to develope construction plans (other than Elias Gottlob Haussmann"s portrait itself) I decided to take the initiative and build the instrument once again, constructing it as close as possible to the intrument in the painting!
I was greatly inspired by both the mystery behind Elias Gottlob Haussmann"s portrait of Reiche and Bach's works, written specifically for Reiche, to be played specicially on his Clarino instrument.
The original instrument, shown in Hausmann's painting, has just my replica, has no valves, nor keys, nor slides, nor "intonation" holes of any kind! 

I have examined and personally tested several instruments from makers who too have in the past quite seriously attempted to construct such a Clarino instrument. Two of the best of these were both made in Leipzig and in Markt Neukirchen and both are infact on display in Leipzig: one in the Grazzi Museum and the other in the Old City Hall Museum of Leipzig even today. They are both from the excellent workshops of Syhre in Leipzig and Volgt in Markt Neukirchen.


Although Syhre of Leipzig and even the excellent Swiss histrocial instrument maker, Rainer Egger of Basel, Switzerland (not to forget mention Markus Rachet of Bamberg, who too built an excellent copy of a much later dated intrument, originally from Balthasar Fürst of Ellwangen - 1770,  on display in the German National Museum in Nuerberg) succeeded in building quite acceptable and playable instruments of this kind, it is in truth virtually impossible to reconstruct such a instrument without a direct interaction and cooperation with a truly experienced, virtuoso performer. One, who first and foremost clearly understands the instruments original playing technique.

Through building my own instrument and my personal and direct study, I has finally uncover what I believe to be the original technique of how Reiche, himself both a respected composer and a highly acclaimed virtuoso, was able to play Johann Sebastian Bach's demanding works on his mysterious and almost forgotten instrument!

The German Painter Elias Gottlob Haussmann (1695 – 1774) served as Court Painter at Dresden and from 1720 was the official Portraitist of the City State of Leipzig. He is best known for his commissioned portrait of Johann Sebastian Bach, painted in 1746. A full 20 years earlier Haussmann had been commissioned from the City “Elders” of Leipzig to paint the, by no means less famous „Senior Stadt Pfeiffer“ Gottfried Reiche, in which he is holding his special Coiled Trumpet.
It is widely believed that this was to honour Reiche for his life's work for the City and this on his 60th Birthday!

It is in this Painting that the special story and historical mystery of the Tromba da caccia (Hunting Trumpet) is most visually told and which motivated me to ask the question:
Why is Bach's most famous Solo Trumpeter, Gottfried Reiche, holding such a strange instrument as this very special commemorative Portrait of himself? Why is he not holding the standard Natural “Fanfare” Trumpet that one would have expected him to play at that time in musical history. And if this is truly the instrument that he regularly performed on, why are the works of J. S. Bach not being plays on this quite obviously original and authentic “Coiled-Trumpet” today?

This instrument was certainly not a Horn according to the famous German Music Historian Prof. Dr. Karl Dietrich Arnold Schering (1877-1941)(2) Editor of the Bach Year Book / Bach Jahrbuchs from 1904 to 1939 and author of the Article Zu Gottfried Reiches Leben und Kunst / Regarding Gottfried Reiche's Life and Art.
Schering reports that Horn playing, was not a part of “Stadtpfeiffer” duties at that time and continues at that it was in fact prohibited by Mandated Law for the Military Trumpet to be to played by any person or persons other than official “Hof Trumpeters”. He makes direct reference to that which was clearly stated in not one but two “Kurfürschliche Mandaten” / Electorial Mandates, namely the Madates “Against the Unauthrporised Playing of Trumpets and Beating of Miltitray Kettledrums” from 1661, by Chur Fürst Johann Georg and reinforced again in Dresden on the 23
rd of July 1711 by his successor “August der Starke”, Elector to Saxonia and King of Poland, in which he signs as Augustus Rex this specific “Prohibition”.It was therefore clearly forbidden in Saxonia for a common City Musician (even one as highly respected as Bach's Solo-Trumpeter Gottfried Reiche) to play the Natural- (Military) Trumpet. Hense Reiche must have performed exclusively upon a so called Italian Trumpet or Coiled-Trumpet (also called a Tromba da caccia) and certainly not the protected “Fanfare”- Hof Trumpet.

 

Added to this, it is unimaginable for one to consider that Reiche would have ever allowed himself to be painted with any other instrument than that which he personally regarded most dearly (although he was as Stadt Pfeiffer contractually required to perform on several instruments, including the Oboe, Cornetto and Violin) and especially the one had made him most famous in Leipzig over the past 25 years of his work for the both the City and in diverse University and Rathhaus Concerts. But Reiche performed in Cantatas in both of the Nikolai and Thomas Churches together with both J. S. Bach starting 1723 and even more importantly for the 21 years before, with the former “Thomas Church Organist” and "Director Chori Musici Lipisiensis" / Musical Director of the City of Leipzig, Johann Kuhnau (1660-1722).
Kuhnau was as well University Music Director and the successor to a further famous Leipzig Church Musician, Johann Schelle and from 1701 to his death the direct predecessor to Johann Sebastian Bach. This means Gottfried Reiche was through his associations with both Schelle and Kuhnau and his duties as Stadt Pfeiffer a prominent and highly regarded musician long before Johann Sebastian Bach ever arrived in Leipzig.

Having been placed in a number of other locations over the past almost 3 centuries, this extraordinary painting hangs once again in the same building where, employed his entire professional career by the City of Leipzig- ultumately reaching the status of "Senior Stadtmusicus" (Senior Performing City Musician) in 1719,  Reiche performed his daily duties up to his sudden death in 1734.

In the painting Reiche is holding a pure-silver and gold ornamented "Clarin" trumpet in “circular form”, (and please, it is certainly not a horn!) which for my way of thinking must be, yes, is obviously the true "Bach" trumpet, ... what else can it be?! 
In his left hand he is holding an „Abblas“ piece, (perhaps his own composition?,... very probably!) which he performed as his “Encore” at the end of his Tower music duties. A flashy "signature fanfare" which he very surely performed from the "Leipziger Rathhaus Turm" as a part of daily musical duties as Senior Stadt Pfeiffer of the City of Leipzig.

It has been postulated, that because this instrument was made of pure Silver and Gold it was therefore very rare and other wise extremely expensive. I suggest that the instrument could have been a personal gift from King August II to Reiche (for his 60th birthday?) in high appreciation of “exceptional musical abilities and continued loyal service to the Duke of Saxony and King of Poland!”? 

Other theories as to the origin of this intrument come for example from the American Scholar and Trumpeter Don L. Smithers, who suggests that perhaps it is a much older instrument, made in the Nuremberg workshops of Johann Leonard Ehe I in the late 17th century or even by another famous Nuremberg instrument maker, Johann Carl Ködisch. Some think it was originally for the Moravian Court of the Markgrafen of Olmuetz, and was most specifically constructed for the use of the Court Composer and Senior Court Trumpeter, Pavel Josef Vejvanovky (1633-1693). These postulations, in my opinion, do not "fit" the possible time line and have nop real basis of fact.

Further speculations suggest it was even much older instrument and that it was in fact Anton Schnitzer who had built this special trumpet in the late 16th / early 17th century, since Schnitzer had created the most innovative instruments of his time, including the very famous "Pretzel Trumpet" for none other than Caesare Bendinelli, composer, author and principal trumpeter at both the Viennese court from 1567 to 1580 and there after at the Bavarian Court in Munich from 1580 until his death in 1617.

These ideas and speculations however interesting and colorfull in nature, are not historically supported nor documented in any historical texts.



Some specific  facts about the Tromba da caccia and it's use in Germany (Saxonia) in te 17th and 18th century are however very clearly documented.

Since the German musicologist Michael Praetorius mentions and even clearly illustrates the "Clarino Trumpet" (in Coiled form) in his work "Syntagma Musicum" published in Wolfenbüttel and Wittenberg in three parts between 1614-1620, this kind of Coiled Trumpet was well known and widely performed upon in Europe and this long before Reiche was even born.

We know that Reiche performed regularly on this special Clarino instrument in Leipzig. We know too that Cantata 215 "Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen" was written by Johann Sebastian Bach specifically for Reiche to be performed by him on October 5th, 1734. which was the fateful night when he died of exhaustion (heart attack and/or a stroke?) on his way home, following the first performance of this Cantata!  We know too that the performance took place outside and directly in front of the Historical City Hall in Leipzig and under no less than Johann Sebastian Bach's personal musical direction.
We know as well that Reiche was most certainly the Solo Trumpeter for whom Johann Sebastian Bach had written not only this work but as well as all of his most challenging and difficult secular and religious compositions involving the Clarino dating from 1723 through to 1734, including the Christmas Oratorio. 

There is also no doubt that a very special relationship between these two exceptional musicians began immediately after Bach's arrival in Leipzig in 1723, when Bach assumed the prestigious position of "Director Chori Musici Lipisiensis" (Musical Director of the City of Leipzig), a position he was to maintain until his death in 1750.
Bach even revised several of his previous Cantatas composed in Weimar and even earlier to accommodate and even feature Reiche's extraordinary abilities on the Tromba da caccia.

One last and important fact that we are sure of: The very last musical statement of Reiche's life, as 1st Clarino in the final Coro: "Stifter Reiche, Beherrscher der Kronen" of Cantata 215, was a beautifully lyrical melody. Here Reiche was allowed to "sing" with his "Clarino" above the whole ensemble.
Such lyrical, obligato parts were typically played on a Tromba da caccia, (circular trumpets in Coiled form) since these parts were necessarily required to be performed in perfect balance, and with unfailing intonation and musical inflection, supporting and enhancing the soprano voice part.

In an attempt to perfect it's construction and understand and revive the original playing technique of the  Coiled Trumpet /Tromba da caccia, I have been seriously researching, building and rebuilding my own version of the "Clarino" trumpet since 2015. I firmly believe that the special musical relationship between Reiche and Bach (although a total of only 11 years!) created the rare historical opportunity for the art of trumpet performance to develop above and beyond it's former limited role of loud and dramatic musical "sound and fury" on the Military Trumpet of that time. To go beyond the usual forceful military fanfare style of the time and to be suddenly set at the forefront of Bach's most sensitive and lyrically interactive musical expressions in both his Sacred Cantatas as well as his worldly works performed in Leipzig from 1723 was the goal of the development of this high art of Clarion playing as propigated by Gottfried Reiche and his colleagues.

Reiche quite obviously had perfected his special musical gifts and highly developed Tromba da caccia playing technique, even before Bach's arrival in Liepzig. However the combination of Bach's music for the trumpet and Reiche's special performaning abilities allowed the beginning of a new and much more lyrical musical role for the Natural Trumpet and this is especially evident in J. S. Bach's Choral Music involving the Tromba da caccia. 

J. S. Bach's works are truly the ultimate challenge when playing the Tromba da caccia, especially in the Clarino range!


My earliest moviation to "Study and Explore" Music for the "Baroque" Trumpet:


After a series of my own (very early) performance in 1970 of among other works “Let the Bright Seraphim” from Handel's Samson together with the internationally acclaimed Canadian Vocal Artist Maureen Forrester (1) (then Chair of the Canada Council for the Arts) I was engaged to recorded among other Baroque works for Solo Trumpet: the Purcell Sonata in D, Purcell's ( or rather what now is widely believed to be John Stanley's) “Trumpet Tune” and the Torelli “8G” Sonata. I recorded these at age 14 on the Modern D Trumpet with piano accompaniment for the CBC Radio, Regina. (Radio Producer: Rudi Blancher)

(1)Maureen Kathleen Stewart Forrester, CC, O.ON, OQ, opera and recital singer, teacher, arts administrator (born 25 July 1930 in Montreal, QC; died 16 June 2010 in Toronto, ON). Maureen Forrester was one of Canada’s greatest and best-known classical singers. She was renowned for her remarkable trumpet-like contralto and her deeply emotive musical interpretations. The only classical performer other than Glenn Gould to be inducted into the Canadian Music Hall of Fame, she was admired greatly at home and abroad for her recitals, recordings and opera performances. She also served as chair of the Canada Council for the Arts, director of du Maurier Arts and chancellor of Wilfrid Laurier University.


I have ever since been fascinated by Baroque repertoire with voice and most especially the works of Johann Sebastian Bach and have since my relocation in 1978 to Europe recorded among other of his Bach's works, his Second Brandenburg Concerto. An especially noteworthy recording which was done “Live” in the Historical Chapel of the Cadolzburg (Burg des Kadold) near Fuerth, Lower Franconia. This special historical location dates back to 1157 when the reeve of Kadolzburg, Helmericus de Kadoldesburc, agreed on a territorial exchange between the Diosise of Wuerzburg and the Abbey of Heibronn. The Castle was in turn in the year 1397 given together with “all the land under the mountains" (“... untergebirgisch”), including the residence of Cadolzburg to Fredrick VI who 20 years later received the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the title Elector of Brandenburg as well. His dynasty would later become the Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire of Germany.

 

As Solo Trumpeter of the Bamberg Symphony (beginning in the fall of 1979) I also became co-leader/founder of the German Brass Ensemble with which I recorded an all J. S. Bach CD in 1985 (EMI-Electrola: “Bach 300”) . The works on this CD were performed by a large (10 member) Brass Ensemble from the leading Brass Soloists from the top German Symphonic Orchestras of that time (including members of the Berlin Philharmonic, Bavarian Radio, Hamburg Radio and Opera, Stuttgart Radio and the Bamberg Symphony Orchestras, respectively) and was recorded exclusively on modern Orchestral instruments.

Having privately studied the “vented” Baroque Trumpet beginning in the second half of the 1980's I applied for a Canada Council Advanced Studies Grant and took provate lesson in London (from Michael Laird), Linz (from Friedemann Immer and Basel (Edward H.Tarr) and in fulfillment of that Study Grant I recorded my first “Historical Trumpet” Solo CD in 1988/89 entitled “la tromba”, on which I performed works for both Modern and Baroque Trumpet while conducting the ensembles and orchestras involved. Two works that are most notable with respect to my pervious work on the Baroque trumpet are: Giovnanni Bonaventura Viviani's “Sonata per Tromba Solo” with Orgen Accomp.; G.F.Handel's “Let the Bright Seraphim” from Samson with Soprano and Organ Accomp.; Arcangelo Corelli's “Sonata per Tromba e due Violino e B. c. in D Dur with 2 violins, Cello and Cembalo Accomp. and Leopold Mozart's “Konzert für Trompete und Orchestra” in D Dur with full 20 memebr Baroque Chamber Orchestra accompaniment.

Since then and especially since 2015 I have been concentrating not only on the construction of my own Tromba da caccia, built after Haussmann's Painting of Gottfired Reiche from 1726 but also have added my considerations to the “construction plans” that I had purchased from the “Germanische National Museum” in Nueremburg in the early 1980s.
These construction plans depict a “Jäger Trumpet” attributed to the workshop of Balthasar Fuerst from 1770 and even though these specific construction plans (unsigned but probably done by Robert Barkley in 1977/78) are admittedly of an Intrument built more than 50 years later than that held by Reiche in Haussmann's Portriat, all possible first hand historical information as to the proper construction of such an instrument is I believe necessary.
As too, was my special opportunity to look closely at and even briefly perform on an excellent replica of a Tromba da caccia which was brought to me directly out of the Grazzi (Leipziger University) Museum for me to present at my Concert-Lecture in the “Historical Rathaus” which took place on the 18
th of November 2017.
Please see a portion of this LIVE lecture concert on YouTube: Richard Carson Steuart - Clarino Projekt zu Leipzig Part 1


Although this Instrument came directly to me out of one of the museum's Glass Display-Cases and was infact built in Markt Neukirchen for the Leipzig Museum in 1957 as a copy of a no longer existing Historical instrument made in the Pfeiffer workshop in 1697, I was able to play it without any preparation usins Hand reflection. Infact it allowed remarkable response and excellent intonation when I completely spontaneously performed on it that afternoon. The major differences between this special replica and various other instruments made in Germany at the time of Reiche and Bach, are most notably it's very small (modern horn-sized) mouthpiece “shank” and corresponding mouthpiece with respective (extremely) small throat bore (ca, 3,00 mm), and large flat “Trumpet like” cup shape and it's conical lead-pipe, extending well into the main bore of the instrument.
This does not mean it should be confused with a “Horn” of any kind, since the Bell size and shape and mouthpiece cup shape are typically “Trumpet like”. It's construction rather is almost as if it were to be desribed as quite “Modern” in form.
It should be noted that Modern piston-valve trumpets have very similar conical Lead-pipes and Bell shapes as this Pfeiffer model and variation of a Tromba da caccia. This which allows it to be played in the higher over tone range, that is easily up to C'' and beyond by some specialists.
And this is exactly what Reiche and many of his colleagues at that time was required to do: play accurately and securely up into 19
th and 20th and even, in the famous 2nd Brandenburg Concerto, up to the 21 and 22 Overtone / Partial on an instrument completely without valves or slides or holes or keys of any kind... a truly “Natural” Trumpet. But how was this possible?

From the numerous writings by Historical Music Scholars on the subject of the Tromba da caccia and it's musical application before and during the time of J. S. Bach, I have build my Thesis and in fact my Instrument itself and on the most probable use by Gottfried Reiche of the Tromba da caccia (coiled trumpet) as his main High Brass Instrument using hand reflection. Astute observations and writings have been made by both the German Musicologist Karl Dietrich Arnold Schering (2) (1877-1941) in his work; “ Zu Gottfried Reiches Leben und Kunst” and the American Trumpeter and Music Historian Don Leroy Smithers (*1933) in his most revealing work; ”Gottfried Reiches Ansehen und sein Einfluß auf die Musik Johann Sebastian Bachs Leben und Werk” (Bach-Jahrbuch 73, 113–150, 1987 ) about the Baroque Trumpet and it's influence and importance in earlier Musical Eras.

Another excellent excellent coiled
trumpet that i had the opportunty to study in the early 1990s was bulit in 1959 by Helmut Finke a student and trumpet colleague of the Historical Trumpet “revival” pioneer Walter Holy of Cologne, Germany. It is with this trumpet, that Holy recorded the Second Brandenburg Concerto in Vienna with the famous Musician and Musicologist Niklas Harnoncourt in 1964.
Although in my opinion a very acceptable recording and a certainly a ground breaking attempt at returning to the Original Instrumentation of Bach works, this instrument and the playing technique used, cannot be regarded as truly “Authentic”.
To help with intonation problems, an instrument maker, Otto Steinkopf, who had been reconstructing woodwind instrument for 
Moeck, Celle, suggested putting in tone holes. In addition to correcting intonation it also was important in aiding in accuracy in the high register. The 3 “correction” tone holes were covered with 3 fingers of the right hand. This form of vented “Baroque” Trumpet was further developed in the late sixties and early seventies. Trumpets in Straight “Short form” (with double tuning bows, each with “3 tunig holes”) were constructed by Adolf Egger of Basel and developed together with the German Baroque Trumpeter Friedemann Immer and the American Trumpeter and Musicologist Dr. Edward H. Tarr of Basel. Much later intruments were developed in England in a Long form with four tuning holes by among other English Trumpeters Steven Kevey and Michael Laird.

 

To these most important observation and developments I suggest a return to the contribution that Reiche's early use (perhaps even first application therefore his “research and creation”?) of what was much later applied and highly documented as a “Hand- Stopping” technique for the “Wald” Horn and the curved Straight Trumpet of the Early Classical period. This Hand Refection technique and his other wise exceptional performing abilities was I believe his greatest contribution to the ART of Trumpet performance at that time. This technique was used by orchestral Trumpeters and Horn Soloists of the Early Classical and Romantic musical Eras to both phrase, articulate and most importantly perfectly “intonate” the demanding music written for their instruments by Mozart and even Beethoven and this for their respective Orchestral and Solo works from the end of the 18th and well in to the the 19th Century.
The
Clarino Trumpet is an extremely "dangerous" intrument to perform on at the best of times, because, like any natural resonating instrument it is difficult to "control" in the high register, (especially without any intonation holes nor slides nor keys of any kind, just as the Tromba da caccia” was originally played) and both excellent ear training and an advanced emboucher and breathing development were and still are absolutely necessary to perform consistently on this extremely sensitive instrument.
Added to this and most importantly, a deeper understanding and application of the both Tounge Positioning techniques (so called “Lipping“ or in German “Treiben and Fallenlassen” of tones to improve intonation) and the Hand- Reflextion technique that I propose cannot be circumvented if, in my opinion, one wishes to master this difficult instrument and to authentically perform Bach's demanding works on it successfully!


Since there are neither hand-written technical descriptions, printed method books, nor any historical performance explanations as to how this Tromba da caccia instrument was originally played, I firmly believe, after working on this project for almost five years, that only through very methodical study, together with singers and 2 and more Tromba da caccia playing Colleagues, will I be able able to perform the works of J. S. Bach using both the “hand- reflection” (quasi stopping) and other original historical playing techniques. 
Through this practical application I am sure I will be able to share the superlative musical qualities of this special instrument and it's technical playing knowledge with the modern music world!

Das "Fürstbischofliches Bläserconsortium zu Würzburg" (Prince Bishop of Wuerzburg's Windensemble) wurde 1999 von Richard Carson Steuart unter der Schirmherrschaft von Paul Graf von Schönborn-Wiesentheid gegründet.
Mitglieder dieses Ensembles sind in erster Linie aus seinen ehemaligen "Meisterklassen" und "Konzertpodien" / Studenten Klassen aus dem früheren "Städtisches Konservatorium" und der "Hochschule für Musik Würzburg". Aber auch die Studenten, die seit 2001 dazu gekommen sind aus den nun vereinten Institutionen, die sich aktuell auf internationaler Ebene: "Bavarian State Univeristy of Music, Wuerzburg" bezeichnen. Das bis zu 21 Personen starke FBC Ensemble, ist je nach Konzertrepertoire unterschiedlich groß und besteht aus bis zu 8 modernen Trompeten, einschließlich den sogenannten Alt- und Bass-Trompeten, in tief F und B (auch mit Verdoppelung auf Natur- / Barocktrompeten), 1 Altposaune, 3 Tenorposaunen, eine Bassposaune, bis zu 3 Hörner, eine Tenortuba, eine Basstuba, eine Kontrabasstuba, Schlagzeug, Pauken und Orgel. Seit ihrer Gründung im Jahr 1999 konzertiert das Ensemble regelmäßig, sowohl in Würzburg als auch im Großraum Franken und hat mehrere Radioaufnahmen u.a. beim BR-Nürnberg bereits eingespielt. Durch internationalen Beziehungen Steuarts,nahm und nimmt weiterhin das Ensemble auch an internationalen Musikfestivals, darunter 3 Konzertreisen nach Italien, mit zusätzlichen Live-Radio-Konzerten, in Österreich und Slowenien. Zu Ehren des 250. "Jahre Todestag" von G.F. Händels gab Steuart, der in Freiburg im Breisgau lebende Musikhistoriker und Komponist Helmut M. Timpelan den Auftrag des gesamten G.F. Händels "Royal Fireworksmusic" für das FBC Ensemble zu schreiben.
Das Werk ist im Herbst 1999 "Live" aufgeführt und aufgenommen. All dies geschah genau hier in der Residenz Hof-Kapelle zu Würzburg. Dieses speziell für das "Fürstbischof von Würzburgs Windensemble" geschriebene Werk ist als Teil der "Special Jubiläums" Edition CD.


 

 

mothersday concert series 2019

Richard Carson steuart and his canadian benefit concert tour 2016

Richard Carson Steuart is an internationally renowned and acclaimed Canadian Music Composer, Producer, Trumpet Soloist, and University Lecturer born in 1956 and raised in Saskatchewan. He is the winner of the world"s most prestigious National and International Classical Solo Trumpet competitions and based in Europe since 1978, has been touring and lecturing for over four decades world-wide.

He will be performing three benefit concerts with organ accompaniment and lecturing in at least two Universities in Canada in September of this year.His three Concerts, together with the Concert Organist Dr. Klaus Linsenmeyer of Germany, will include music from "Bach to Bernstein�, and will take place in:

Saskatoon (September 16th at Cathedral of St. John the Evangelist, 7:30pm: BENEFICIARY is "EGADZ�)

Weyburn (September 17th at Grace United Church, 4:00pm: BENEFICIARY is "The Family Place�), and,

Regina (September 18th at Westminster United Church, 7:30pm: BENEFICIARY is "Regina Open Door Society�)

Tickets will be available at Picatic.com online, and at the door (starting an hour before the concert times above), and will cost between $15 and $40, with each ticket-holder receiving a CD compilation of  Mr. Steuart"s recorded works covering a wide variety of genresâ?¦ a "50th Musical Anniversary Tour - Benefit Concert CDâ?. 

>>> BUY TICKET(S) <<<

Born on January 31st, 1956 in Weyburn, Richard moved with his family to Regina in 1960. His first musical instruction began on his 9th birthday under the tutelage of his father, Kenneth Leslie Steuart, a SaskTel Telecommunications Engineer and a serious brass-playing hobby musician. He performed his first public concert as Cornet Soloist in Rosemont United Church in Regina, in 1966 together with Ms. Edith Chisholm and this after only one year of any kind of musical studies.

At age 11, Richard undertook his first "Jazzâ? tour as featured "juniorâ? Trumpet Soloist.This was as a part of the 1967 Canadian National Centenary Concert Festivities. He was accompanied by a professional Big Band led by his first teacher, Dr. John Harding. Richard was a repeated Class A-Open First Prize winner in the Regina and Saskatchewan Music festivals and was as well the Junior First Prize Winner (at age 11) of the Canadian National Music Festival in 1967. Intensely involved in various musical groups in Regina and throughout Saskatchewan from the very beginning, he performed with the Salvation Army Brass, the Regina Police Boys and the Saskatchewan Youth Bands, the Regina Inter- Collegiate and Saskatchewan Youth Orchestras and the University of Saskatchewan Brass Quintet, Symphonic Concert and Jazz Big Bands.  

Richard became a member of the Regina Symphony Orchestra 1969 at age 13, advancing to the Solo Trumpet position in the 1971/72 season.  In 1970, at the age of 14, he accepted his first Trumpet Teaching- Assistantship under Dr. Mel Carey at the University of Saskatchewan, Regina Campus. Having previously studied Saxophone, Clarinet, Oboe and Piano at the Regina Conservatory, he found time to teach beginner Clarinet and Saxophone for the Regina City School District. From 1970 to 1975, he was Solo Trumpeter of the National Youth Chamber and Symphony Orchestras of Canada performing on extended Summer Concert tours in among other major Canadian cities: Vancouver, Toronto, Ottawa Quebec and Montreal. He and was also a featured Soloist with that orchestra.

In 1976, at age 20 and already CBC Radio Soloist and Solo-trumpeter of the Canadian Chamber Orchestra , he won both the First Prize at the Canadian National Music Festival in Toronto and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's Radio and Television Classical Solo-Instrumental Competition - the "CBC Talent Festival� and this for all Wind Instruments. Immediately there after he was accepted into the famous Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia, USA. There he received a full 4 year Scholarship. He was as well awarded the first of three consecutive international Study Grants (1976-1978) from the Arts Council of Canada, with which he subsequently studied in Chicago and New York with the foremost members of the Symphony and Opera Orchestras of those major American cultural centres.

Travelling to Europe in the summer of 1978 as Solo Trumpet of the World Youth Orchestra, he completed his studies in London and then Munich and accepted on November the Solo Trumpeter position in the German Opera in Düsseldorf.

In February of 1979 he took the position as Solo Trumpeter of the world touring, "Bamberg Symphoniker�. He is the co-founder of among several other high profile ensembles such as the German Brass Ensemble (1979), the Munich Brass (1983) the European Baroque (1989) and the "Prince Bishop"s Wind Ensemble� (1999). He competed for and won both the German- ARD (1980) and Swiss- SRT (1981) International Radio and Television Competitions for the Trumpet as Solo Instrument.

His musical accomplishments were officially honoured by the Bavarian State Ministry of Culture when they created a special position for him in 1983 at the Music Conservatory / State University of Music in Wuerzburg, Northern Bavaria where he continues to teach both Historical and Modern Trumpet and Chamber Music today. Performing thousands of live concerts, producing over 20 Solo and Ensemble CDs from Classic to Jazz for his own CD "La Tromba Music Productionsâ? company, as well as recording with various top musical constellations as both  an Opera and Symphonic Solo-Trumpeter, Solo Concert Soloist, Chamber Ensemble and "Soloist-Leaderâ?, Mr. Steuart"s Classical Music experience is truly extensive.

As featured Recording-Artist for the CBC, WDR, BR, SDR, ARD, SRT Radio and Television stations as well for the RCA, BMG, EMI, MMO and Konstantin and Koch- International CD and Film production companies and through touring with groups ranging from English and German Pop and Rock to Brass and Symphonic Concert Bands, diverse Jazz and Modern-Fusion Orchestras as well as international Historical Music Ensembles, yes even for major European and Hollywood Films his musical knowledge and understanding has developed quite naturally in a very broad spectrum.Richard Carson Steuart"s teaching as Guest Professor in major conservatories and universities and his Concert touring in Germany, Russia, the United States, Canada, China, Japan and throughout Europe, has contributed to the high acclaim he receives from his general public and his peers alike, and this as not only one of the foremost Trumpeters of his generation, but also as one of the world's most experienced, versatile and knowledgeable trumpet performers and teachers today. Klaus Linsenmeyer (Organ) The German Concert Organist Klaus Linsenmeyer has been the General Music Director of the "Hauger-Stifts-Kirche" in Wuerzburg since 1971.

He studied organ from 1959 to1963 with the famous Johann Sebastian Bach specialist Prof. Karl Richter at the Musikhochschule (University of Music) in Munich, during which time he was engaged as organist at the both the Zwölf-Apostelkirche and the Bürgersaalkirche in Munich. For more than 40 years, he was Director of Musical Studies at the Friedrich-Koenig-Gymnasium in Wuerzburg, at which time he was also engaged as organ teacher at both the Hermann-Zilcher-Konservatorium and the Musikhochschule (University of Music) in Wuerzburg.

Over the past 60 years of his musical career Klaus Linsenmeyer has performed as Soloist in over 100 Radio recordings and CD productions for among others, the Bavarian State Radio in Munich, and toured Canada (Vancouver, Victoria), USA, Brazil, Portugal, Israel, Spain, Czech Republic, Poland, Italy, Austria, Switzerland, Egypt, Lithuania, Korea, as well as many of the largest cities of Russia, including Volgograd, St. Petersburg and Moscow.

In 1996 he was awarded his Doctorate of Musical Philosophy from the Julius Echter University in Würzburg, successfully defending his dissertation concerning the iconic German pianist, composer and teacher Wilhelm Kempff. In November 2015 Dr. Linsenmeyer was awarded the Bundesverdienstkreuz am Bande (German National Medal of Honour) from the German President personally, paying due tribute and respect for Dr. Linsenmeyer"s lifes work as both a teacher and musical artist in the German Republic.

For further information, please contact: Brian Johnson (in Regina) at 306-536-1211 or brianleejohnson@accesscomm.ca Triant Steuart (in Saskatoon) at 306-380-9371 or triant@sasktel.net

Mothersday concert 2016 (12th)

Valentine's Day Concert 2016

Concert Series 2015/2016

Concerts 2014